Humans evolved to live as simple hunter-gatherers in small tribal bands. Contemporary humans now have a very different environment and way of life.[13][14] This change makes present humans vulnerable to a number of health problems, termed "diseases of civilization" and "diseases of affluence". Stone-age humans evolved to live off the land, taking advantage of the resources that were readily available to them. Evolution is slow, and the rapid change from stone-age environments and practices to the world of today is problematic because we are still adapted to stone-age circumstances that no longer apply. This misfit has serious implications for our health. "Modern environments may cause many diseases such as deficiency syndromes like scurvy and rickets".[15])
On this podcast we will be announcing our most expansive and exciting adventure to date, called Journey to 100. It will be held on June 30th and available for live streaming through the Functional Forum. You might remember Evolution of Medicine co-founder James Maskell presented his TEDx talk in 2015 from Guernsey called Community, Not Medicine, Creates Health. He's heading back to Guernsey to host the event, along with Dr. Rangan Chatterjee, the BBC’s "Doctor in the House". Journey to 100 will host 20 leading global healthcare, lifestyle and longevity experts, who will share their perspectives and help us all understand how we can live healthier, happier lives, from zero to 100 years old and beyond. Expect over 20 international speakers from all over the world including some past Functional Forum presenters like Dr. Janet Settle, Dr. Michael Ash, Tom Blue and Dr. Sachin Patel. Beyond progressive medicine models, there will also be talks on fascinating topics indirectly related to healthcare like sustainable farming, universal basic income and community support structures.

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In the 1830s in Italy, Agostino Bassi traced the silkworm disease muscardine to microorganisms. Meanwhile, in Germany, Theodor Schwann led research on alcoholic fermentation by yeast, proposing that living microorganisms were responsible. Leading chemists, such as Justus von Liebig, seeking solely physicochemical explanations, derided this claim and alleged that Schwann was regressing to vitalism.


Medical information in the Edwin Smith Papyrus may date to a time as early as 3000 BC.[20] Imhotep in the 3rd dynasty is sometimes credited with being the founder of ancient Egyptian medicine and with being the original author of the Edwin Smith Papyrus, detailing cures, ailments and anatomical observations. The Edwin Smith Papyrus is regarded as a copy of several earlier works and was written c. 1600 BC. It is an ancient textbook on surgery almost completely devoid of magical thinking and describes in exquisite detail the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous ailments.[21]

The sexual revolution included taboo-breaking research in human sexuality such as the 1948 and 1953 Kinsey reports, invention of hormonal contraception, and the normalization of abortion and homosexuality in many countries. Family planning has promoted a demographic transition in most of the world. With threatening sexually transmitted infections, not least HIV, use of barrier contraception has become imperative. The struggle against HIV has improved antiretroviral treatments.

Nursing was greatly improved by two nurses, Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) and Mary Seacole (1805-1881) who both nursed soldiers during the Crimean War 1853-56. In the USA Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross in 1881. Meanwhile in the 19th century several more hospitals were founded in London including Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital (1852). In 1864 Jean Henri Dunant founded the international Red Cross.

The ancient Mesopotamians had no distinction between "rational science" and magic.[8][9][10] When a person became ill, doctors would prescribe both magical formulas to be recited as well as medicinal treatments.[8][9][10][7] The earliest medical prescriptions appear in Sumerian during the Third Dynasty of Ur (c. 2112 BC – c. 2004 BC).[11] The oldest Babylonian texts on medicine date back to the Old Babylonian period in the first half of the 2nd millennium BCE.[12] The most extensive Babylonian medical text, however, is the Diagnostic Handbook written by the ummânū, or chief scholar, Esagil-kin-apli of Borsippa,[13][14] during the reign of the Babylonian king Adad-apla-iddina (1069–1046 BCE).[15] Along with the Egyptians, the Babylonians introduced the practice of diagnosis, prognosis, physical examination, and remedies. In addition, the Diagnostic Handbook introduced the methods of therapy and cause. The text contains a list of medical symptoms and often detailed empirical observations along with logical rules used in combining observed symptoms on the body of a patient with its diagnosis and prognosis.[16] The Diagnostic Handbook was based on a logical set of axioms and assumptions, including the modern view that through the examination and inspection of the symptoms of a patient, it is possible to determine the patient's disease, its cause and future development, and the chances of the patient's recovery. The symptoms and diseases of a patient were treated through therapeutic means such as bandages, herbs and creams.[13]


Western conceptions of the body differ significantly from indigenous knowledge and explanatory frameworks in Asia. As colonial governments assumed responsibility for health care, conceptions of the human body were translated into local languages and related to vernacular views of health, disease, and healing. The contributors to this volume chart and analyze the organization of western medical education in Southeast Asia, public health education in the region, and the response of practitioners of “traditional medicine”.

As we prepare to present the Evolution of Environmental Medicine next week, Dr. Pizzorno shares with us that toxins either contribute to or cause virtual every chronic illness we see today.  What can practitioners do when toxins have been proven to be trans-generational? Dr. Pizzorno explains how you can approach treatment for those exposed to toxins, indicators of toxin exposure, and what to measure when testing for exposure. He goes into greater details in his new book: The Toxin Solution: How Hidden Poisons in the Air, Water, Food, and Products We Use Are Destroying Our Health--AND WHAT WE CAN DO TO FIX IT. This book is a culmination of the decades of research that he's done around toxins and how to avoid those you can and what to do to mitigate the effects of the ones you can't.


In this review, the endlessness evolution of medical science and medical technology, and its effects on disease metamorphosis and increased life expectancy are discussed. In certain instances, the past will be compared with the present and predictions for the future will be outlined. Further, the constant role of the physician in maintaining the health of human beings is emphasized in this endlessness evolution.
The Egyptians did have some knowledge of anatomy from making mummies. To embalm a dead body they first removed the principal organs, which would otherwise rot. However Egyptian surgery was limited to such things as treating wounds and broken bones and dealing with boils and abscesses. The Egyptians used clamps, sutures and cauterization. They had surgical instruments like probes, saws, forceps, scalpels and scissors. They also knew that honey helped to prevent wounds becoming infected. (It is a natural antiseptic). They also dressed wounds with willow bark, which has the same effect. The Egyptians were clean people. They washed daily and changed their clothes regularly, which must have helped their health.
As a physician board certified in OBGYN and Integrative Medicine and I was not very savvy to the ways of functional medicine. Then I had problems of my own and I wasn't getting the attention I needed from the allopathic establishment so I went to a functional medicine practitioner and my eyes were opened as a patient and doctor. This book is that wake up call to the rest of the medical establishment that lifestyle and functional medicine is the way that we should be practicing. Maskell is saying what we as physicians need to hear, and it is my hope that we are ready to listen. The book is full of reasons why the new paradigm is not coming, but already here, and in my opinion will eventually be the standard of care. It is also my hope that insurance companies will pick up this book and take heed in the information that we are currently worrying about the end result of disease and need to focus on the power of prevention and gut health. Please read this book and wake up to the call of preventive functional health and be a part of the Evolution of Medicine
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