Byzantine physicians often compiled and standardized medical knowledge into textbooks. Their records tended to include both diagnostic explanations and technical drawings. The Medical Compendium in Seven Books, written by the leading physician Paul of Aegina, survived as a particularly thorough source of medical knowledge. This compendium, written in the late seventh century, remained in use as a standard textbook for the following 800 years.
Since its founding in 1967, the Medical School’s Program in the History of Medicine has been dedicated to research and teaching in the intellectual, political, cultural, and social history of disease, health care, and medical science. The history of medicine provides students with a historical perspective on the role health, medicine, and disease play in society today. It prepares students to think critically about historical and contemporary health issues.
Great overview of what it takes to learn and run a Functional Medicine (science-based, systems biology, Integrative) medical practice. I started a Functional Medicine practice in 2009. I wish this book was and approach was available then. There were a lot of growing pains, many of which may have been avoided with the best practices approach outlined in this book. We started out in a fully insurance based practice and at 5 years we were very successful. However, we were also very burnt out. We had talked about creating a model that could be used to help providers make the switch. The bottom line in my experience is that most people can't do that when they're in the trenches seeing patients and learning by trial and error. We never advertised after the initial announcement that we were opening. From there it is was all word of mouth.
The Section of the History of Medicine is a freestanding unit in the Yale University School of Medicine engaged with research and teaching in the history of medicine, the life sciences, and public health. In addition to instruction for medical students, including mentoring M.D. theses, the faculty collaborates with colleagues in the History Department, in the Program in the History of Science and Medicine, which offers graduate programs leading to the M.A., Ph.D., and combined M.D./Ph.D. degrees and an undergraduate major in the History of Science/History of Medicine. The Section contributes to the Program's colloquia, and Distinguished Annual Lectures, workshops, and symposia in medical history. Through research and teaching, the faculty seeks to understand medical ideas, practices, and institutions in their broad social and cultural contexts, and to provide intellectual tools to engage with the challenges faced by contemporary medicine.
We revisit this important topic to gear up for the next Functional Forum – Evolution of Environmental Medicine from the Environmental Health Symposium. We will be connecting with more practitioners to discuss the importance of understanding where the major sources of toxicity come from and the ways to help your community of patients and clients to avoid these harmful toxins.

During the U.S. Civil War the Sanitary Commission collected enormous amounts of statistical data, and opened up the problems of storing information for fast access and mechanically searching for data patterns. The pioneer was John Shaw Billings (1838–1913). A senior surgeon in the war, Billings built the Library of the Surgeon General's Office (now the National Library of Medicine), the centerpiece of modern medical information systems.[142] Billings figured out how to mechanically analyze medical and demographic data by turning facts into numbers and punching the numbers onto cardboard cards that could be sorted and counted by machine. The applications were developed by his assistant Herman Hollerith; Hollerith invented the punch card and counter-sorter system that dominated statistical data manipulation until the 1970s. Hollerith's company became International Business Machines (IBM) in 1911.[143]
The Greek Galen (c. 129–216 CE) was one of the greatest physicians of the ancient world, studying and traveling widely in ancient Rome. He dissected animals to learn about the body, and performed many audacious operations—including brain and eye surgeries—that were not tried again for almost two millennia. In Ars medica ("Arts of Medicine"), he explained mental properties in terms of specific mixtures of the bodily parts.[51][52]
In 1865 Joseph Lister (1827-1912) discovered antiseptic surgery, which enabled surgeons to perform many more complicated operations. Lister prevented infection by spraying carbolic acid over the patient during surgery. German surgeons developed a better method. The surgeons hands and clothes were sterilized before the operation and surgical instruments were sterilized with superheated steam. Rubber gloves were first used in surgery in 1890. Anesthetics and antiseptics made surgery much safer. They allowed far more complicated operations.
Great overview of what it takes to learn and run a Functional Medicine (science-based, systems biology, Integrative) medical practice. I started a Functional Medicine practice in 2009. I wish this book was and approach was available then. There were a lot of growing pains, many of which may have been avoided with the best practices approach outlined in this book. We started out in a fully insurance based practice and at 5 years we were very successful. However, we were also very burnt out. We had talked about creating a model that could be used to help providers make the switch. The bottom line in my experience is that most people can't do that when they're in the trenches seeing patients and learning by trial and error. We never advertised after the initial announcement that we were opening. From there it is was all word of mouth.
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