Mummified bodies provide direct evidence for ailments and their treatments. They have shown us that ancient Egyptians suffered from eye diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, bladder, kidney and gallstones, bilharzia, arterial disease, gout and appendicitis. The tree-bark splints on a 5,000 year old mummified arm show that fractures were splinted. Most bone fractures found archaeologically are healed, further proof of good medical care.

1796 Edward Jenner develops a method to protect people from smallpox by exposing them to the cowpox virus. In his famous experiment, he rubs pus from a dairymaid's cowpox postule into scratches on the arm of his gardener's 8-year-old son, and then exposes him to smallpox six weeks later (which he does not develop). The process becomes known as vaccination from the Latin vacca for cow. Vaccination with cowpox is made compulsory in Britain in 1853. Jenner is sometimes called the founding father of immunology.
Byzantine physicians often compiled and standardized medical knowledge into textbooks. Their records tended to include both diagnostic explanations and technical drawings. The Medical Compendium in Seven Books, written by the leading physician Paul of Aegina, survived as a particularly thorough source of medical knowledge. This compendium, written in the late seventh century, remained in use as a standard textbook for the following 800 years.
As infectious diseases have become less lethal, and the most common causes of death in developed countries are now tumors and cardiovascular diseases, these conditions have received increased attention in medical research. Tobacco smoking as a cause of lung cancer was first researched in the 1920s, but was not widely supported by publications until the 1950s. Cancer treatment has been developed with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgical oncology.
As we prepare to present the Evolution of Environmental Medicine next week, Dr. Pizzorno shares with us that toxins either contribute to or cause virtual every chronic illness we see today.  What can practitioners do when toxins have been proven to be trans-generational? Dr. Pizzorno explains how you can approach treatment for those exposed to toxins, indicators of toxin exposure, and what to measure when testing for exposure. He goes into greater details in his new book: The Toxin Solution: How Hidden Poisons in the Air, Water, Food, and Products We Use Are Destroying Our Health--AND WHAT WE CAN DO TO FIX IT. This book is a culmination of the decades of research that he's done around toxins and how to avoid those you can and what to do to mitigate the effects of the ones you can't.
James Maskell:  Absolutely.  And Dr. Palevsky, when he spoke at the Functional Forum in March, the conclusion of everything—even though he was going into areas that have not been looked on before—is just what you said: epigenetics take care of these factors.  It’s certainly another look at whether injecting viruses into tissue, you know, there’s another potential problematic mechanism there.  But certainly, the overall view was that it’s epigenetics.  We already know what helps to turn on the right genes and keep us healthy.
^ Hayward, Rhodri (2011). "Medicine and the Mind". In Jackson, Mark. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine. Oxford University Press. pp. 524–42. ISBN 978-0199546497.; Scull, Andrew (2005). Most Solitary of Afflictions: Madness And Society in Britain, 1700–1900. Yale University Press. pp. 324–28. ISBN 978-0300107548.; Dowbiggin, I. (1992). ""An exodus of enthusiasm": G. Alder Blumer, eugenics, and US psychiatry, 1890–1920". Medical History. 36 (4): 379–402. doi:10.1017/S002572730005568X. PMC 1036631. PMID 1435019.; Snelders, S.; Meijman, F.J.; Pieters, T. (2007). "Heredity and alcoholism in the medical sphere: The Netherlands, 1850–1900". Medical History. 51 (2): 219–36. doi:10.1017/S0025727300001204. PMC 1871693. PMID 17538696.; Turda, M. (2009). ""To end the degeneration of a nation": Debates on eugenic sterilization in inter-war Romania". Medical History. 53 (1): 77–104. doi:10.1017/S002572730000332X. PMC 2629178. PMID 19190750.
Paracelsus (1493–1541), was an erratic and abusive innovator who rejected Galen and bookish knowledge, calling for experimental research, with heavy doses of mysticism, alchemy and magic mixed in. He rejected sacred magic (miracles) under Church auspisces and looked for cures in nature.[81] He preached but he also pioneered the use of chemicals and minerals in medicine. His hermetical views were that sickness and health in the body relied on the harmony of man (microcosm) and Nature (macrocosm). He took an approach different from those before him, using this analogy not in the manner of soul-purification but in the manner that humans must have certain balances of minerals in their bodies, and that certain illnesses of the body had chemical remedies that could cure them.[82] Most of his influence came after his death. Paracelsus is a highly controversial figure in the history of medicine, with most experts hailing him as a Father of Modern Medicine for shaking off religious orthodoxy and inspiring many researchers; others say he was a mystic more than a scientist and downplay his importance.[83][84]
This week on the Evolution of Medicine podcast, we are thrilled to welcome start of the BBC one prime-time series and International Functional Forum host, Dr. Rangan Chatterjee. Dr. Chatterjee is a Functional Medicine doctor who is passionate about lifestyle transformation. Over 4 million people watched season one of Doctor in the House as he reversed type two diabetes and a number of other chronic conditions.
Radin elsewhere theorizes the temporalities involved in cryogenics, the freezing of biological matter. In this article, she explores a spatial scaling, from terrestrial colonial outposts to distant planets, from “indigenous human to the alien in biological science.” In keeping with her sensitivity to space and refoldings of the colonial past, Radin ends with a call, via Ursula Le Guin, to stop, turn one’s gaze from a frontier future and look down at one’s own roots.

Tracey and Patricia started their Functional Forum Meetup after we took the Functional Forum on the road. Like any new venture, there were some initial hurdles. With a little tweaking and getting the opinions of their practitioner community, they have been able to set up a very successful meetup every month. Learn more about attending or hosting a meetup here:
In the paper, Radin explores how frozen colonial pasts operate in the service of biological futures. Radin’s research refigures sample collection, induction and cryogenic suspension as modes of colonial science. Following histories of frozen blood samples collected from indigenous populations in the postwar period, Radin reveals a cryopolitics of “not letting die,” in the service of some future biological development. Radin’s impressive body of work offers unique contributions to the study of Cold War, postcolonial technoscience, genomics, big data, climate history, extinction, science fiction and speculative futures.
Mid-1960s: Many seriously mentally ill people are removed from institutions. In the United States they are directed toward local mental health homes and facilities. The number of institutionalized mentally ill people in the United States will drop from a peak of 560,000 to just over 130,000 in 1980. Many people suffering from mental illness become homeless because of inadequate housing and follow-up care.