Prize Citation: In “Digital Natives: How medical and Indigenous histories matter for Big Data,” Joanna Radin argues for critical engagement with “the metabolism of Big Data”. Radin presents the remarkable history of a dataset known as the Pima Indian Diabetes Dataset (PIDD), derived from research conducted with the Akimel O’odham Indigenous community in Arizona. Since the loss of their ability to farm the land, this community has an extremely high rate of diabetes. Reconstructing the circumstances of the dataset’s production and its presence in a Machine Learning repository where it is used in projects far removed from diabetes, Radin draws attention to the way that data is naturalised, and bodies and economic struggle are elided. Significant questions are raised about the ethics and politics of research in an age of Big Data, including the reproduction of patterns of settler colonialism in the research enterprise, and the community’s work to redefine the research encounter. The prize committee were impressed by Radin’s depth of research, quality of analysis, and the contribution to multiple literatures, and commend her for an inspired and inspiring article.
James Maskell:  Absolutely.  Well, the concept with the Evolution of Medicine Summit was that I saw so many ways in which medicine was evolving.  You know, medicine is evolving to treat the kind of diseases that we have, the current epidemics.  So it’s having to sort of evolve and adapt to deal with that.  There are also really cool evolutionary concepts within medicine and health that I know you’re really big on.  And that’s why I had to have you come in and speak.  You know, obviously, I know you’re big on the microbiome, and our evolution with microbes has certainly been something that people are interested in, obviously evolutionary nutrition and then Paleo concepts.  We are really excited to have your talk as the keynote for the Paleo day on the summit.  And then there’s also this evolution with regards to technology as well, health technology and the interaction.  You’re right there in San Francisco, the Silicon Valley Revolution, which I really feel is a synergistic force to the work that we are all doing in integrative and functional medicine.  I just saw all of these things coming together.  They’re literally coming together in the first week of September.  There’s the iPhone, the new iWatch is going to launch then.  We have the Cleveland Clinic announcement with Functional Forum.  We have the Brain and Gut Journal coming up.  So all of these things are happening in the first week of September.  It’s just been really congruent to put together a summit of the finest minds and try and share some of these messages as quickly and as effectively as possible.

Around 800 BCE Homer in The Iliad gives descriptions of wound treatment by the two sons of Asklepios, the admirable physicians Podaleirius and Machaon and one acting doctor, Patroclus. Because Machaon is wounded and Podaleirius is in combat Eurypylus asks Patroclus to cut out this arrow from my thigh, wash off the blood with warm water and spread soothing ointment on the wound.[35] Asklepios like Imhotep becomes god of healing over time.
In the 1830s in Italy, Agostino Bassi traced the silkworm disease muscardine to microorganisms. Meanwhile, in Germany, Theodor Schwann led research on alcoholic fermentation by yeast, proposing that living microorganisms were responsible. Leading chemists, such as Justus von Liebig, seeking solely physicochemical explanations, derided this claim and alleged that Schwann was regressing to vitalism.
Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) was one of the most important founders of medical microbiology. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of diseases. His discoveries reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and he created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. His experiments supported the germ theory of disease. He was best known to the general public for inventing a method to treat milk and wine in order to prevent it from causing sickness, a process that came to be called pasteurization. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of microbiology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch. He worked chiefly in Paris and in 1887 founded the Pasteur Institute there to perpetuate his commitment to basic research and its practical applications. As soon as his institute was created, Pasteur brought together scientists with various specialties. The first five departments were directed by Emile Duclaux (general microbiology research) and Charles Chamberland (microbe research applied to hygiene), as well as a biologist, Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (morphological microbe research) and two physicians, Jacques-Joseph Grancher (rabies) and Emile Roux (technical microbe research). One year after the inauguration of the Institut Pasteur, Roux set up the first course of microbiology ever taught in the world, then entitled Cours de Microbie Technique (Course of microbe research techniques). It became the model for numerous research centers around the world named "Pasteur Institutes."[126][127]
In 1865 Joseph Lister (1827-1912) discovered antiseptic surgery, which enabled surgeons to perform many more complicated operations. Lister prevented infection by spraying carbolic acid over the patient during surgery. German surgeons developed a better method. The surgeons hands and clothes were sterilized before the operation and surgical instruments were sterilized with superheated steam. Rubber gloves were first used in surgery in 1890. Anesthetics and antiseptics made surgery much safer. They allowed far more complicated operations.

We welcome Dr. Sonza Curtis as part of our Success Leaves Clues. Dr. Curtis graduated from the University of Nebraska Medical Center, with a Masters of Science in Physician Assistant Studies.  She then went on to complete her Doctorate of Naturopathy for Health Care Professionals.  In 2014, Dr. Curtis became one of only three Georgia doctors Certified in Functional Medicine.
The History of Medicine Collections in the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library at Duke University is accepting applications for our travel grant program. Research grants of up to $1,500 will be offered to researchers whose work would benefit from access to the historical medical collections at the Rubenstein Rare Book & […]
Medicine embraced skills such as acupuncture, obstetrics, dentistry, laryngology, ophthalmology, and treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. The demand for improved technology, aided by certain concerns of the Neo-Confucian philosophy, helped to promote numerous investigations that approached the use of scientific methods. Literacy spread with printing,…
So much great stuff here in how to build a low overhead practice, some of the technology that she's learned how to use through the Evolution of Medicine Practice Accelerator, how to keep a low overhead practice, how to build a connection with local integrative providers that now pay her rent, and just so many other ways in which Sonza has built such an amazing practice. I think there's value in here, no matter what kind of practitioner you are, and I really hope you'll enjoy it. This is part of our Success Leaves Clues podcast series, enjoy.
The Ancient Greeks, some 1000 years before the birth of Christ, recognized the importance of physicians, as related in the works of Homer, injured warriors were treated by physicians. They continued to develop the art of medicine and made many advances, although they were not as skilled as the Ancient Egyptians, whom even Homer recognized as the greatest healers in the world. Whilst they imported much of their medical knowledge from the Egyptians, they did develop some skills of their own and certainly influenced the course of the Western history of medicine.
James Maskell:  Absolutely.  And Dr. Palevsky, when he spoke at the Functional Forum in March, the conclusion of everything—even though he was going into areas that have not been looked on before—is just what you said: epigenetics take care of these factors.  It’s certainly another look at whether injecting viruses into tissue, you know, there’s another potential problematic mechanism there.  But certainly, the overall view was that it’s epigenetics.  We already know what helps to turn on the right genes and keep us healthy.
A major scourge of the 18th century was smallpox. However in the 18th century people realized that milkmaids who caught cowpox were immune to smallpox. In 1796 Edward Jenner introduced vaccination. (Its name is derived from the Latin word for cow, Vacca). The patient was cut then matter from a cowpox pustule was introduced. The patient gained immunity to smallpox. (Jenner was not the first person to think of this but it was due to his work that it became a common practice). Unfortunately nobody knew how vaccination worked.

This week on the Evolution of Medicine podcast, we feature Steven Feyrer-Melk, PhD, co-founder of a preventative cardiology practice, The Optimal Heart Center and Chief Science Officer of Nudge Coach, a lifestyle medicine technology company. Nudge has sponsored the Functional Forum and the Evolution of Medicine podcast in the past year and has worked with us to bring our community of practitioners a valuable addition to their practices that allows every patient to feel supported at all times.

This has been a huge acceleration for our organization. James published his book The Evolution of Medicine. We launched the Evolution of Medicine Practice Accelerator and as always, we've had our monthly the Functional Forum episodes. We've recently introduced the "Future of Functional in 5" which allows our community of practitioners to share their stories and gifts with the whole community. Our Functional Forum meetups continue to facilitate collaboration and community building for practitioners on a local level.  James and Gabe also discuss what's new for the Evolution of Medicine and share details about a course on building a Functional Membership practice, as well as bringing new doctors into our community consistently.

Due to the hot and dry climate in Egypt, ancient papyri have survived intact, allowing historians to study the sophisticated techniques employed by Ancient Egyptian physicians. Whilst couched in magic and ritual, the Egyptians possessed a great deal of knowledge of healing herbs and repairing physical injuries, amongst the normal population and the workers responsible for building the great monuments of that nation.
China also developed a large body of traditional medicine. Much of the philosophy of traditional Chinese medicine derived from empirical observations of disease and illness by Taoist physicians and reflects the classical Chinese belief that individual human experiences express causative principles effective in the environment at all scales. These causative principles, whether material, essential, or mystical, correlate as the expression of the natural order of the universe.
They have come up with an innovative way to fund their efforts. On Sunday, October 2nd 9AM-6PM EDT, the NYANP will be hosting a conference accessible to you from anywhere in the world.  Check out to register and for more details conference. Proceeds will help retain the lobbyists working towards the mission of licensed NDs in NY (and you get CEs!).

In the paper, Radin explores how frozen colonial pasts operate in the service of biological futures. Radin’s research refigures sample collection, induction and cryogenic suspension as modes of colonial science. Following histories of frozen blood samples collected from indigenous populations in the postwar period, Radin reveals a cryopolitics of “not letting die,” in the service of some future biological development. Radin’s impressive body of work offers unique contributions to the study of Cold War, postcolonial technoscience, genomics, big data, climate history, extinction, science fiction and speculative futures.
Mid-1960s: Many seriously mentally ill people are removed from institutions. In the United States they are directed toward local mental health homes and facilities. The number of institutionalized mentally ill people in the United States will drop from a peak of 560,000 to just over 130,000 in 1980. Many people suffering from mental illness become homeless because of inadequate housing and follow-up care.